Flink(3)——apache flink event time 与 watermark

December 10, 2018
作者:星爷
出处:http://lxWei.github.io/posts/Flink(3)-Apache-Flink-Event-Time-%E4%B8%8E-Watermark.html
声明:转载请注明作者及出处。

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上篇 所述,Flink 里时间包括Event Time、Processing Time 和 Ingestion Time 三种类型。

由于Event Time 更能表达业务需求,所以,Event Time 应用更为广泛,但使用Event Time 也会存在一些问题。

1. 问题:乱序与延迟

乱序与延迟是实时系统中最常见的问题。比如说,在实时系统中广泛使用的消息队列,很难保证端到端的全局有序,从而导致进入 Flink 集群的数据是无序的;然后,由于洪峰的存在,比如秒杀或者重跑历史数据,很容易造成数据在消息队列堆积,从而造成延迟。

2. 解决方案

采用Event Time的流计算处理器,需要评估Event Time进展,比如当窗口结束时,需要通知 Operator 关闭窗口并开始计算。

2.1 Watermark

Apache Flink 采用watermark来处理,watermark 带有一个时间戳,作为数据流的一部分随数据流流动,Watermark(t) 表示event time 小于等于 t 的都已经到达,如下图所示。

Watermark

2.1.1 生成Watermark

2.1.1.1 方法1 Source 中生成

在source中,直接生成watermark,不过,source生成的watermark 优先级比较低,可以被方法2中的覆盖掉。具体的定义在一篇讲Source & Sink 时详述。

2.1.1.2 方法2 Timestamp Assigner

Timestamp Assigner 输入数据流,产生一个新的数据流,新数据流带有产生的watermark,如果原数据流本身就有watermark,则覆盖原watermark。Timestamp Assigner 一般紧跟在source后,但不是必须的,但是必须在第一个event time 操作前。

Timestamp Assigner 分两种:

Periodic

直接看源码(注释太明白,不舍得删)。

/**
 * A {@code TimestampAssigner} assigns event time timestamps to elements.
 * These timestamps are used by all functions that operate on event time,
 * for example event time windows.
 *
 * <p>Timestamps are represented in milliseconds since the Epoch
 * (midnight, January 1, 1970 UTC).
 *
 * @param <T> The type of the elements to which this assigner assigns timestamps.
 */
public interface TimestampAssigner<T> extends Function {

	/**
	 * Assigns a timestamp to an element, in milliseconds since the Epoch.
	 *
	 * <p>The method is passed the previously assigned timestamp of the element.
	 * That previous timestamp may have been assigned from a previous assigner,
	 * by ingestion time. If the element did not carry a timestamp before, this value is
	 * {@code Long.MIN_VALUE}.
	 *
	 * @param element The element that the timestamp will be assigned to.
	 * @param previousElementTimestamp The previous internal timestamp of the element,
	 *                                 or a negative value, if no timestamp has been assigned yet.
	 * @return The new timestamp.
	 */
	long extractTimestamp(T element, long previousElementTimestamp);
}
/**
 * The {@code AssignerWithPeriodicWatermarks} assigns event time timestamps to elements,
 * and generates low watermarks that signal event time progress within the stream.
 * These timestamps and watermarks are used by functions and operators that operate
 * on event time, for example event time windows.
 *
 * <p>Use this class to generate watermarks in a periodical interval.
 * At most every {@code i} milliseconds (configured via
 * {@link ExecutionConfig#getAutoWatermarkInterval()}), the system will call the
 * {@link #getCurrentWatermark()} method to probe for the next watermark value.
 * The system will generate a new watermark, if the probed value is non-null
 * and has a timestamp larger than that of the previous watermark (to preserve
 * the contract of ascending watermarks).
 *
 * <p>The system may call the {@link #getCurrentWatermark()} method less often than every
 * {@code i} milliseconds, if no new elements arrived since the last call to the
 * method.
 *
 * <p>Timestamps and watermarks are defined as {@code longs} that represent the
 * milliseconds since the Epoch (midnight, January 1, 1970 UTC).
 * A watermark with a certain value {@code t} indicates that no elements with event
 * timestamps {@code x}, where {@code x} is lower or equal to {@code t}, will occur any more.
 *
 * @param <T> The type of the elements to which this assigner assigns timestamps.
 *
 * @see org.apache.flink.streaming.api.watermark.Watermark
 */
public interface AssignerWithPeriodicWatermarks<T> extends TimestampAssigner<T> {

	/**
	 * Returns the current watermark. This method is periodically called by the
	 * system to retrieve the current watermark. The method may return {@code null} to
	 * indicate that no new Watermark is available.
	 *
	 * <p>The returned watermark will be emitted only if it is non-null and its timestamp
	 * is larger than that of the previously emitted watermark (to preserve the contract of
	 * ascending watermarks). If the current watermark is still
	 * identical to the previous one, no progress in event time has happened since
	 * the previous call to this method. If a null value is returned, or the timestamp
	 * of the returned watermark is smaller than that of the last emitted one, then no
	 * new watermark will be generated.
	 *
	 * <p>The interval in which this method is called and Watermarks are generated
	 * depends on {@link ExecutionConfig#getAutoWatermarkInterval()}.
	 *
	 * @see org.apache.flink.streaming.api.watermark.Watermark
	 * @see ExecutionConfig#getAutoWatermarkInterval()
	 *
	 * @return {@code Null}, if no watermark should be emitted, or the next watermark to emit.
	 */
	@Nullable
	Watermark getCurrentWatermark();
}

可以看出,自定义的Assigner 需要实现AssignerWithPeriodicWatermarks 接口,其中getCurrentWatermark 产生新的watermark,如果返回非空且大于原来的watermark,则生成了新的watermark;另外,extractTimestamp 用于给数据加上时间戳,这个时间戳在后续所有基于event time的计算中使用。以下面的代码为例,假设数据可能乱序,但最多延迟3.5秒。


/**
 * This generator generates watermarks assuming that elements arrive out of order,
 * but only to a certain degree. The latest elements for a certain timestamp t will arrive
 * at most n milliseconds after the earliest elements for timestamp t.
 */
class BoundedOutOfOrdernessGenerator extends AssignerWithPeriodicWatermarks[MyEvent] {
    val maxOutOfOrderness = 3500L // 3.5 seconds
    var currentMaxTimestamp: Long = _
    override def extractTimestamp(element: MyEvent, previousElementTimestamp: Long): Long = {
        element.getCreationTime()
    }

    override def getCurrentWatermark(): Watermark = {
        // return the watermark as current highest timestamp minus the out-of-orderness bound
        new Watermark(currentMaxTimestamp - maxOutOfOrderness)
    }
}

ExecutionConfig.setAutoWatermarkInterval(...) 定义了watermark产生的时间间隔,单位是毫秒。

Punctuated

根据event来确定是否需要产生新的watermark,定义Punctuated Assigner 需要实现AssignerWithPunctuatedWatermarks接口,包括函数extractTimestampcheckAndGetNextWatermark,其中extractTimestamp 同Periodic Assigner,首先调用;然后调用checkAndGetNextWatermark ,用于确定是否需要产生新的watermark,当checkAndGetNextWatermark 产生一个非空且大于上一个watermark时就产生了新的watermark。举个例子如下:

class PunctuatedAssigner extends AssignerWithPunctuatedWatermarks[MyEvent] {

	override def extractTimestamp(element: MyEvent, previousElementTimestamp: Long): Long = {
		element.getCreationTime
	}

	override def checkAndGetNextWatermark(lastElement: MyEvent, extractedTimestamp: Long): Watermark = {
		if (lastElement.hasWatermarkMarker()) new Watermark(extractedTimestamp) else null
	}
}

为了便于使用,Apache Flink 提供了两种预定义的Timestamp Assigner:

这两种Timestamp Assigner 一是可以直接使用,二是可以作为学习的代码示例。

Latency

即使采用watermark 技术,对于watermark(t) 也可能存在时间戳小于t却没有到达的数据,在现实中,延迟可能是无上限的,这种情况下,不可能无限等待下去;另外,即使延迟有限,但如果让watermark 延迟太多也不好,因为延迟太多可能就失去了实时的意义。所以,必须要作出选择。

默认情况下,延迟超过watermark的数据会被丢弃,但 Flink 允许在窗口操作上指定最大延迟,我们用N表示支持的最大延迟(N默认为0),对于窗口 [start_time, end_time)] ,数据迟于 watermark(t) 但先于end_time+N到达的,仍然会添加到窗口中再次触发计算。为了支持这种情况,Flink 需要保持这个窗口state 到时间戳 end_time + N ,当时间到达end_time+N后,Flink 删除窗口和state。

stream
    .keyBy(<key selector>)
    .window(<window assigner>)
    .allowedLateness(<time>)
    .<windowed transformation>(<window function>)

3. 总结

本文主要介绍Flink 中Event Time 和Watermark。由于Event Time 具有业务意义,且具有确定性,所以Event Time 应用广泛,但由于在现实中存在延迟和乱序问题,Flink 采用了 Watermark 来解决这个问题。

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